|Update on the Global Prevalence of Pica in Pregnant Women: A Meta-analysis|
|Shahrzad Sanjari1, Mohammad Reza Mohammidi Soleimani2, Azita Amir Fakhraei3|
|1Student Research Committee, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran
2Department of Psychology, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran
3Psychology, Islamic Azad University of Bandar Abbas, Bandar Abbas, Iran
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Keywords : Prevalence, Pica, Pregnant Woman, Meta-analysis
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Objectives: Pregnancy pica is harmful to the mother and her baby. This study aimed to update the global prevalence of pica in pregnant women.
Methods: Scopus, Science Direct, Wiley online, Google Scholar, and PubMed databases were searched for observational studies until July 2021. This search was done with the keywords “pregnancy pica”, “prevalence of pica”, “pica frequency”. After evaluating the extracted studies based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, 45 final articles were selected. Calculations were performed based on STATA software. Publication bias was also assessed.
Results: The global prevalence of pica in pregnancy in the final forty-five articles (Sample size: 21 267) was 34%. However, the prevalence has decreased since 2015. In the subgroup analysis, rural women, women with lower education, younger women, unemployed women, and women living in the African geographical area had the highest prevalence of pica. Our results also showed that this rate was higher in women in the first trimester of pregnancy and multiparous women.
Conclusions: The global prevalence of pica was 34%. Therefore, it is recommended to implement educational programs, empower women and distribute nutritional supplements during pregnancy.
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