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Jul 2020, Vol 8, Issue 3
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Original Article
Changes in Renal Function Among Women With Preeclampsia in a Tertiary Health Institution in Nigeria
Njoku Charles1,2, Njoku Amarachukwu2, Edet Ekpo1,2, Emechebe Cajethan1,2
1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology University of Calabar, Calabar
2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria

IJWHR 2020; 8: 272-275
DOI: 10.15296/ijwhr.2020.44
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Keywords : Electrolytes, Urea, Creatinine, Preeclampsia, Pregnancy outcome
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Abstract
Objectives: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-related multisystem medical disorder which adversely affects the health of the mother and fetus. Studies have shown varied changes in biochemical renal function indices in preeclampsia. These changes vary in different environments and affect renal health and pregnancy outcomes. Accordingly, this study aimed to determine changes in serum electrolytes, urea, and creatinine in women with preeclampsia in Calabar.

Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 144 pregnant women including 72 normotensive and 72 preeclamptic cases of similar age groups, with singleton pregnancies, and in the third trimester. The serum sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, chloride, urea, and creatinine were assayed in the two groups. Finally, statistical analysis was done using SPSS, version 22.

Results: Based on the results, the preeclamptic group had significantly higher mean blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI) compared to the normotensives. In addition, women with preeclampsia had a significant decrease in serum potassium and an increase in the serum creatinine compared to the normotensive group. The results further revealed that serum potassium, as well as systolic BP and diastolic BP had a significant inverse correlation in preeclampsia (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Eventually, the serum creatinine had a significant positive relationship with systolic and diastolic BP (P < 0.01)

Conclusions: In general, serum potassium and creatinine levels significantly altered in preeclampsia and were associated with increased disease severity. Therefore, it is suggested the serial electrolyte and creatinine profile should be used in the monitoring disease severity, which informs a timely intervention and reduces complications associated with preeclampsia.

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