|Socio-Economic Risk Factors of Spontaneous Preterm Birth Among Saudi Women: A Case-control Study|
|Hayfaa A Wahabi|
|Research Chair of Evidence-based Healthcare and Knowledge Translation, Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, King Saud University,Riyadh, Saudi Arabia|
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Keywords : Socio-economic risk factors, Spontaneous preterm birth, Case control study, Saudi Arabia
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Objectives: The aim of this study is to identify the effect of the socio-economic factors such as family income, employment, housing education and tobacco smoke exposure on spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) in Saudi women.
Materials and Methods: A matched case-control study, including 150 women with spontaneous preterm delivery and 150 women with spontaneous full-term delivery, was conducted in three hospitals in Riyadh.Cases and controls were matched for age and parity. Information on maternal socio-economic risk factors was obtained from face-to-face interviews. Odds ratio (OR) for risk factors and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. A multiple logistic regression model was used to control for potential confounding factors.
Results:First-degree consanguinity (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) =3.72, 95% CI=1.52-9.12), exposure to tobacco smoke (AOR=2.62, 95% CI=1.03-6.66), low family income (AOR= 4.63, 95% CI= 1.62-13.27), were all associated with an increased risk of SPTB.
Conclusion: Spontaneous preterm birth in Saudi Arabia is associated with first-degree consanguinity, low family income and exposure to tobacco smoke. Public health interventions to address these associated factors may contribute to the reduction in the prevalence of preterm birth.