|Preeclampsia Induced Ocular Change|
|Leila Alizadeh ghavidel, Farideh Mousavi, Masood Bagheri, Saba Asghari|
|Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Nikookari Eye Hospital, Tabriz, Iran|
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Keywords : Preeclampsia, Eclampsia, visual change
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Objective: Preeclampsia/eclampsia, the most common medical complication of pregnancy, can affect visual system as an end organ damage. Visual symptoms occur in 25% of patients with severe preeclampsia and 50% of patients with eclampsia. Visual system may be affected by hypertensive retinopathy, exudative retinal detachment and cortical blindness.
Method: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane library until April 2017 in the followinglanguages: English and Persian. In Additionally, extensive literature search using the Persian databases. Also, the cited references in published articles were also manually reviewed for relevant results.
Results: The visual prognosis for ocular involvement is excellent in most cases because of its nature and high rate of spontaneous recovery, which occurs in few weeks. The fact that there is a correlation between ocular finding and placental vascular abnormality emphasized correct diagnosis and evaluation of pregnant patients with visual changes. This review describes the ocular involvement in pregnant patients with pre/eclampsia. The first aim is to discuss the pathophysiology and epidemiology of visual system involvement in pre/eclampsia. The second aim is to diagnosis the adverse effect in visual system as an end organ damage. Finally, in this review is discussed the ophthalmologic finding, controversial issue of the treatment and prognosis with preventive care and monitoring methods for patients follow up.
Conclusion:visual involvement is common in pregnant induced hypertension and retinal vascular changes are the most common ocular finding. It seems progression of these changes are sign of increasing severity of PIH and have correlated with fetal mortality, as a result these finding may be a guideline for prompt intervention as they may reflect similar ischemic vascular changes in the placenta. Although ocular involvement has a good prognosis in PIH but repeated observations, early diagnosis and prompt management are essential for both maternal and fetal ultimate outcomes.
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