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Jul 2017, Vol 5, Issue 3
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A Review of The High Level of Education and Reduced Fertility in Iranian Women: Have Women Been Empowered?
Zahra Behboodi Moghadam1, Maryam Ordibeheshti Khiaban1, Maryam Esmaeili2, Mahvash Salsali3
1Department of Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2Department of Critical Care Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3Department of Medical and Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


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Keywords : Education, Empowerment, Fertility, Iran, Women
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Abstract
An increase in the number of women attending university is a relatively new phenomenon. According to international reports, higher numbers of academically educated women has reduced their fertility rate. This is phenomenon has contributed to reduced fertility in Iran in recent decades. According to international research, female empowerment through education has affected their fertility. This study applied the narrative review method. It set out to examine the impact of the increasing number of women in academic education and their reduced fertility on female empowerment of Iranian women. After a search of electronic databases, 464 scientific documents published from 1994 to 2016 were retrieved and 71 scientific documents were included in the study. Research showed that the higher level of women’s education did not lead to equality with men terms of their economic, socio-cultural and political status. Moreover, research showed that educated women were deprived of their right to make their own decisions on family planning issues. Female empowerment, as one of the main objectives in sustainable development, needs more emphasis on women’s reproductive rights and a strategy to reduce gender discrimination with consideration of the related cultural issues.

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