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Apr 2018, Vol 6, Issue 2
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A Review of the High Level of Education and Reduced Fertility in Iranian Women: Have Women Been Empowered?
Zahra Behboodi Moghadam1, Maryam Ordibeheshti Khiaban1, Maryam Esmaeili2, Mahvash Salsali3
1Department of Reproductive Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2Department of Critical Care Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3Department of Medical and Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

IJWHR 2018; 6: 106-112
DOI: 10.15296/ijwhr.2018.18
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Keywords : Education, Empowerment, Fertility, Iran, Women
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Abstract
An increase in the number of women attending university is a relatively new phenomenon. According to international reports, greater numbers of academically educated women have reduced their fertility rate. This phenomenon has contributed to the reduced fertility in Iran in recent decades. According to international research, women’s empowerment has affected their fertility through education. This study applied a narrative review method. It set out to examine the impact of the increasing number of women in academic education and their reduced fertility on Iranian female empowerment. Searching electronic databases, 464 scientific documents published during 1994-2016 were retrieved out of which 71 were included in the study. Research showed that the higher level of women’s education did not lead to equality with men in terms of their economic, socio-cultural, and political status. Moreover, it was revealed that educated women were deprived of their right to make their own decisions on family planning issues. Female empowerment, as one of the main objectives in sustainable development, needs more emphasis on women’s reproductive rights and a strategy to reduce gender discrimination considering the related cultural issues.

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