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Jan 2020, Vol 8, Issue 1
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Early Signs of Pregnancy and Implantation
Ibrahim Alkatout1, Ulrich Honemeyer2, Karl-Günter Noé3, Christel Eckmann-Scholz1, Nicolai Maass1, Mohamed Elessawy1, Liselotte Mettler1
1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology,University Hospitals Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany
2Fetal Medicine and Genetics Center, Dubai Healthcare City, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology,Dormagen District Hospital, Dormagen, Germany

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Keywords : Ectopic pregnancy, Laparoscopy, HCG, Methotrexate, Salpingotomy
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Objective: The rate of ectopic pregnancies has increased from 0.5% in 1970 to 2% today. With the growing application of imaging techniques, however, all normal and abnormal implantations can now be detected early. This review article tries to assess a workup of all localizations of human ectopic pregnancies. All diagnostic and therapeutic modalities from the non-medical conservative method, to the medical non-surgical options through to the surgical laparoscopic approach for the treatment of ectopic pregnancies are assessed in this review.

Methods and Results: Observational treatment: Monitoring HCG levels until tubal abortion or resorption is a treatment option with the risk of failure and requires patience from the patient and the treating physician.

Medical treatment: The predominant drug is methotrexate but other systemic drugs, such as actinomycin D, prostaglandins and RU 486, can also be applied.

Surgical treatment: In the case of tubal pregnancies, salpingotomy, partial salpingectomy followed by laparoscopic anastomosis or fimbrial milking is performed to preserve tubal function. According to their localization non-tubal ectopic pregnancies (ovarian pregnancy, ectopic abdominal pregnancy, interstitial or cornual pregnancy/rudimentary horn, intraligamental and cervical pregnancies) all require their own specific treatment.

Conclusions: Today, ectopic pregnancies are diagnosed early enough to be treated effectively by laparoscopic surgery. In 5–15% of women the remaining positive HCG values in serum after treatment refer to remnant conception products and may be treated with a final methotrexate injection or expectantly.

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Articles by Alkatout I
Articles by Honemeyer U
Articles by Noé K
Articles by Eckmann-scholz C
Articles by Maass N
Articles by Elessawy M
Articles by Mettler L


Articles by Ibrahim Alkatout
Articles by Ulrich Honemeyer
Articles by Karl-Günter Noé
Articles by Nicolai Maass
Articles by Mohamed Elessawy
Articles by Liselotte Mettler

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